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ESR1 mutations are acquired frequently in hormone receptor–positive metastatic breast cancer after prior aromatase inhibitors. We assessed the clinical utility of baseline ESR1 circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) analysis in the two phase III randomized trials of fulvestrant versus exemestane. Detection of ESR1 mutations in baseline ctDNA is associated with inferior PFS and OS in patients treated with exemestane versus fulvestrant.
 In the first trial to combine PARP and AKT inhibitors, a prospective intrapatient dose- escalation design demonstrated safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic activity and assessed predictive biomarkers of response/resistance. Antitumor activity was observed in patients harboring tumors with germline BRCA1/2 mutations and BRCA1/2 wild-type cancers with or without somatic DDR and/or PI3K–AKT pathway alterations.
In an MSK cohort (n==11,975), 17% of patients harboured pathogenic mutations in cancer predisposition genes, of which over a third were potentially actionable (6.5% of all subjects) including germline variants in BRCA1/2, PALB2 and MSI genes.
In a phase III placebo-controlled trial, the IDH inhibitor ivosidenib improved PFS for IDH1 mutant patients in the second/third line setting (median 2.7 months versus 1.4 months for placebo
AIM: To assess time-to-treatment failure (TTF) in US patients with EGFR mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received sequential afatinib–osimertinib treatment in the global, observational GioTag study. PATIENTS & METHODS: Patients had EGFR T790M mutation-positive disease after first-line afatinib and subsequently received osimertinib. The primary outcome was TTF. RESULTS: In 129 patients at US centers, median TTF was 28.4 months (90% CI: 27.0–34.1). Median overall survival was 47.6 months (90% CI: 35.5–51.5). CONCLUSION: Sequential afatinib–osimertinib in this US-treated population was associated with long median TTF and represents an effective, evidence-based treatment option for US patients with EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC not presenting with active brain metastases or de novo T790M
As of 10 April 2020, New York State had 180,458 cases of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and 9,385 reported deaths. Patients with cancer comprised 8.4% of deceased individuals1. Population-based studies from China and Italy suggested a higher coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) death rate in patients with cancer2,3, although there is a knowledge gap as to which aspects of cancer and its treatment confer risk of severe COVID-194. This information is critical to balance the competing safety considerations of reducing SARS-CoV-2 exposure and cancer treatment continuation. From 10 March to 7 April 2020, 423 cases of symptomatic COVID-19 were diagnosed at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (from a total of 2,035 patients with cancer tested). Of these, 40% were hospitalized for COVID-19, 20% developed severe respiratory illness (including 9% who required mechanical ventilation) and 12% died within 30 d. Age older than 65 years and treatment with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) were predictors for hospitalization and severe disease, whereas receipt of chemotherapy and major surgery were not. Overall, COVID-19 in patients with cancer is marked by substantial rates of hospitalization and severe outcomes. The association observed between ICI and COVID-19 outcomes in our study will need further interrogation in tumor-specific cohorts.
Temozolomide (TMZ) is an oral alkylating agent used for the treatment of glioblastoma and is now becoming a chemotherapeutic option in patients diagnosed with high-risk low-grade gliomas. The O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) is responsible for the direct repair of the main TMZ-induced toxic DNA adduct, the O6-Methylguanine lesion. MGMT promoter hypermethylation is currently the only known biomarker for TMZ response in glioblastoma patients. Here we show that a subset of recurrent gliomas carries MGMT genomic rearrangements that lead to MGMT overexpression, independently from changes in its promoter methylation. By leveraging the CRISPR/Cas9 technology we generated some of these MGMT rearrangements in glioma cells and demonstrated that the MGMT genomic rearrangements contribute to TMZ resistance both in vitro and in vivo. Lastly, we showed that such fusions can be detected in tumor-derived exosomes and could potentially represent an early detection marker of tumor recurrence in a subset of patients treated with TMZ
Frameshift insertion/deletions (fs-indels) are an infrequent but highly immunogenic mutation subtype. Although fs-indels are degraded through the nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) pathway, we hypothesise that some fs-indels escape degradation and elicit anti-tumor immune responses. Using allele-specific expression analysis, expressed fs-indels are enriched in genomic positions predicted to escape NMD, and associated with higher protein expression, consistent with degradation escape (NMD-escape). Across four independent melanoma cohorts, NMD-escape mutations are significantly associated with clinical-benefit to checkpoint inhibitor (CPI) therapy (Pmeta = 0.0039). NMD-escape mutations are additionally found to associate with clinical-benefit in the low-TMB setting. Furthermore, in an adoptive cell therapy treated melanoma cohort, NMD-escape mutation count is the most significant biomarker associated with clinical-benefit. Analysis of functional T cell reactivity screens from personalized vaccine studies shows direct evidence of fs-indel derived neoantigens eliciting immune response, particularly those with highly elongated neo open reading frames. NMD-escape fs-indels represent an attractive target for biomarker optimisation and immunotherapy design
Patients with HER2+ gastric and GEJ tumours achieve ORR 51% with the antibody drug conjugate trastuzumab deruxtecan in the third line, post trastuzumab setting. Overall survival was significantly superior to chemotherapy (12.5 vs 8.4 months).
A splice-site mutation that results in a loss of transcription of exon 14 in the oncogenic driver MET occurs in 3 to 4% of patients with non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We evaluated the efficacy and safety of tepotinib, a highly selective MET inhibitor, in this patient populatio
The EGFR inhibitor osimertinib demonstrated clear benefit for in the adjuvant setting (stage IB-IIIA EGFR-mutant NSCLC), with 2-year PFS 89% compared with 53% for the placebo control group; data presented at ASCO 
KEYNOTE-177 (NCT02563002) is a phase 3, randomized open-label study evaluating the efficacy and safety of pembrolizumab (pembro) versus standard of care chemotherapy ± bevacizumab or cetuximab (chemo) as first-line therapy for patients (pts) with microsatellite-instability high/mismatch repair deficient (MSI-H/dMMR) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). We present results of the 
final PFS analysis
T-DXd is an antibody-drug conjugate composed of an anti-HER2 antibody, cleavable tetrapeptide-based linker, and topoisomerase I inhibitor payload. Early studies have shown promising activity in advanced HER2-expressing tumors. DESTINY-CRC01 (DS8201-A-J203; NCT03384940) is a phase 2, open-label, multicenter study of T-DXd in pts with HER2-expressing mCRC.c
BEACON CRC is a randomized, phase 3 study which evaluated the triplet of encorafenib (ENCO) + binimetinib (BINI) + cetuximab (CETUX) and the doublet of ENCO + CETUX vs. investigator’s choice of irinotecan + CETUX or FOLFIRI + CETUX in patients (pts) with BRAFV600E metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) whose disease had progressed after 1-2 prior regimens in the metastatic setting. Primary endpoints were overall survival (OS) and objective response rate (ORR; by blinded central review) for triplet vs control. In a previous interim analysis, triplet and doublet improved OS and ORR versus standard of care. Here we report on an updated analysis.
Individuals with cancer, particularly those who are receiving systemic anticancer treatments, have been postulated to be at increased risk of mortality from COVID-19. This conjecture has considerable effect on the treatment of patients with cancer and data from large, multicentre studies to support this assumption are scarce because of the contingencies of the pandemic. We aimed to describe the clinical and demographic characteristics and COVID-19 outcomes in patients with cancer
Prostate cancers (PCs) with loss of the potent tumor suppressors TP53 and RB1 exhibit poor outcomes. TP53 and RB1 also influence cell plasticity and are frequently lost in PCs with neuroendocrine (NE) differentiation. Therapeutic strategies that address these aggressive variant PCs are urgently needed. Using deep genomic profiling of 410 metastatic biopsies, we determine the relationships between combined TP53 and RB1 loss and PC phenotypes. Notably, 40% of TP53/RB1-deficient tumors are classified as AR-active adenocarcinomas, indicating that NE differentiation is not an obligate consequence of TP53/RB1 inactivation. A gene expression signature reflecting TP53/RB1 loss is associated with diminished responses to AR antagonists and reduced survival. These tumors exhibit high proliferation rates and evidence of elevated DNA repair processes. While tumor cells lacking TP53/RB1 are highly resistant to all single-agent therapeutics tested, the combination of PARP and ATR inhibition is found to produce significant responses, reflecting a clinically exploitable vulnerability resulting from replication stress.
Alterations in DNA damage response (DDR) genes are common in advanced prostate tumors and are associated with unique genomic and clinical features. ATM is a DDR kinase that has a central role in coordinating DNA repair and cell-cycle response following DNA damage, and ATM alterations are present in approximately 5% of advanced prostate tumors. Recently, inhibitors of PARP have demonstrated activity in advanced prostate tumors harboring DDR gene alterations, particularly in tumors with BRCA1/2 alterations. However, the role of alterations in DDR genes beyond BRCA1/2 in mediating PARP inhibitor sensitivity is poorly understood. To define the role of ATM loss in prostate tumor DDR function and sensitivity to DDR-directed agents, we created a series of ATM-deficient preclinical prostate cancer models and tested the impact of ATM loss on DNA repair function and therapeutic sensitivities. ATM loss altered DDR signaling, but did not directly impact homologous recombination function. Furthermore, ATM loss did not significantly impact sensitivity to PARP inhibition but robustly sensitized to inhibitors of the related DDR kinase ATR. These results have important implications for planned and ongoing prostate cancer clinical trials and suggest that patients with tumor ATM alterations may be more likely to benefit from ATR inhibitor than PARP inhibitor therapy